Click here to download our android mobile app to your phone  for more materials and others




Account Name : Chi E-Concept Int’l
ACCOUNT NUMBER:  0115939447

First Bank:
Account Name: Chi E-Concept Int’l
Account Name: 3059320631

We also accept :   ATM transfer , online money  transfer 


Enter Amount


Call Help Desk Line :  08074466939,08063386834.

After Payment Send Your Payment Details To

08074466939 Or 08063386834,   The Project Title  You  Selected On Our Website , Amount Paid, Depositor Name, Your Email Address, Payment Date. You Will Receive Your Material In Less Than 1 Hour Once We Confirm Your Payment.



You may also need:  web design company in Nigeria   

Bulk sms company in Nigeria





This research work titled “An Assessment of Loan Defaults and its Impact on Profitability” with special references to Eco Bank Nigeria Plc, Kaduna. The study was conducted to find practical means of minimizing the incidence of default on loans in our banks. This research work focuses on the introduction to the study, the statement of research problem, objectives of the study, the scope and limitation as well as historical background of the case study. Further still, the researcher highlighted the method adopted in the collection and gathering of both primary and secondary data. This was the questioning method which involves the use of questionnaire and personal interview, the next focus was on the analysis of the data collected and the presentation. All data collected was analyzed through the use of (1) tabular method, (ii) likert rating scale. However, the summary of the findings were shows that an assessment of loan defaults and its impact on profitability as in case of Eco Bank Nigeria Plc Kaduna where considerable increase has been recorded due to the competent and effective collection strategy employed. Conclusively, it was gathered that all credit should be for legitimate purpose and adequate processes should be established to ensure that financial institutions are not used for fraudulent activities that are prohibited by law.




1.1     Background of the Study      –         –         –         –         –         –         1

1.2     Statement of Problem –         –         –         –         –         –         –         5

1.2     Objective of the Study –         –         –         –         –         –         –         6

1.3     Significance of the Study      –         –         –         –         –         –         7

1.4     Scope of the Study       –         –         –         –         –         –         –         7

1.5     Research Questions     –         –         –         –         –         –         –         8

1.6     Scope of the Study       –         –         –         –         –         –         –         9

1.7     Limitation of the Study         –         –         –         –         –         –         10

1.8     Definition of Terms     –         –         –         –         –         –         –         10


2.1     Introduction        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         13

2.2     Credit Classification   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         13

2.2     Liquidity Requirement of Bank     –         –         –         –         –         20

2.3     Overdraft   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         25

2.4     Banking Risk      –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         25

2.5     Credit Policy-      –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         30

2.6     Defaults     –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         43

2.7     Causes / reason and Impacts of Loan Default –         –         46


3.1     Introduction        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         52

3.2     Research Design          –         –         –         –         –         –         –         52

3.3     Area of the Study         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         53

3.4     Population of the Study        –         –         –         –         –         –         53

3.5     Population Sample are Sampling technique   –         –         –         54

3.6     Instruments of Data Collection     –         –         –         –         –         55

3.7     Instruments for Data Collection   –         –         –         –         –         55

3.8     Reliability of the Instrument         –         –         –         –         –         55

3.9     Methods of Data Presentation and Analysis  –         –         –         56

3.10   Methods of Data Analysis    –         –         –         –         –         –         56



4.1     Introduction        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         58

4.2     Characteristics of Respondents     –         –         –         –         –         58

4.3     Data Presentation and Analysis   –         –         –         –         –         63

4.4     Summary of Findings  –         –         –         –         –         –         –         70

4.5     Discussion of Findings          –         –         –         –         –         –         71



5.1     Summary   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         73

5.2     Conclusion –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         75

5.3     Recommendations       –         –         –         –         –         –         –         75

References –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         81





1.1     Background of the Study

Attempts to explain the operation of commercial banks began with the inception of banking institution. Lending has become a vital role in banking operations because of its direct effect on economic growth and business department. In most countries, banks and their lending activities have useful integrated into government policy formulation. As far as banks are concerned, their role as lenders is important as that of deposit taking into consideration; the interrelationship in banking system. All commercial banks have common attributes, they keep deposits for their customers, permit certain deposits to be transferred by cheques from an individual account to other accounts in any bank in the country, make loans and invest in government securities.


It is these common features particularly the holding of demand deposits that distinguished commercial banks from other financial institutions, banks like all other business organization have the commercial objective or primary to objective maximize profit, they do this through granting of loans and generate interest from such loans, this translate into profits to banks in their bid to maximize profit.


According to Clarke (2009) problem loans crises as a result of default in the payment agreement caving undue delay in payment and or possible loss. In the banking industry, problem are often inheritable consequence, which have serious cost implication for banks, conservative lending through suppresses profit while supportive leading the possibility of default.


We are Nigeria’s leading retail bank, we emerge from the largest merger and consolidation in Nigeria’s banking industry following the landmark banking consolidation spearheaded by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) mire financial institutions with competences in investment banking corporate and retail banking came together in January 2006 to form ECO Bank.


The banks have 216 business officers spread across the country and we are working to increase this number in the nearest future it has 7 largest bank by business locations with Head Office at 785, Herbert Macauley Way, Central Business District Abuja, while the Head Office is at Annex 290A Akin Olugbade Street, Victoria Island Lagos.


The Bank have seventeen (17) regional offices in Lagos Island, Lagos Mainland Ibadan, Benin, Port Harcourt, Kano, Abuja, Kaduna, Bauchi, Minna, Maiduguri, Apapa, Enugu, Makurdi, Yola, Dutse, and Sokoto. This helps it to maintain one of the fastest decision making processes in the industry today.


As the Nigerian financial sector grows we are gradually transforming into a financial super-market with subsidiaries covering insurance, pensions fund management, share registration and stock broking. In this regard, we have majority shareholding in Fug Pension Limited, Insurance Brokers, Caranda Management Services Ltd, Pelican Press and Unity Registration Ltd in consolidating this strategic business direction. Eco Bank has equally acquired majority shares in Unity Capital Assurance Plc a leading Insurance Company.


Today the bank is one of the largest employers of labour in Nigeria and contributor in Nigeria and contributor to its gross domestic product (GDP). The bank and its subsidiaries employ about 5,000 people. In the first year of operation the bank grew other balance sheet size 29% profitability also grew by 418% to N2.57 billion which is equivalent to USD 20.43m. The result of the second year of operation also holds great promise.



Services Offered

Eco Bank in line with its mission statement to remain the best in providing financial services and create superior wealth to their shareholders has developed numerous in tech. services and product apart from the traditional product such as saving,





This article highlights various college of education, polytechnics, universities website in Nigeria.


Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo,

Alvan Ikoku College of Education, Owerri,

Alvan Ikoku College of Education, Owerri,

Federal College of Educ. Abeokuta,

Federal College of Education, Eha-Amufu,

Federal College of Education, Kano,

Federal College of Education, Katsina,

Federal college of Education, Kontagora,

Federal College of Education, Obudu,

Federal College of Education, Okene,

Federal College of Education, Okene,

Federal College of Education, Pankshin,

 Federal College of Education, Yola,

Federal College of Education, Zaria,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Akoka,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Bichi,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Gombe,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Gusau,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku,

Federal College of Education (Special) Oyo,

State college of education

College of Education, Agbor,

Akwa-Ibom State College of Education, Afaha-Nsit,

College of Education, Akwanga, ., form and admissions list

College of Education, Akwanga,

Cross River State College of Education, Akamkpa,

Adamu Augie College of Education, Argungu,

College of Education, Azare,

Bayelsa State College of Education, Okpoama,

Emmanuel Alyande College of Education, Oyo,

Enugu State College of Education (Tech.) Enugu,

College of Education, Ekiadolor,

Umar Suleiman College of Education, Gashua,

College of Education, Gindiri,

Michael Otedola College of Primary Education, Moforiji,

College of Education, Port Harcourt,

Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Otto,

Tai Solarin College of Education, Ijebu-Ode,

Tai Solarin College of Education, Ijebu-Ode,

Ebonyi State College of Education, Ikwo,

College of Education, Ikere,

College of Education, Ilesha, .

College of Education, Ilesha,

College of Education, Ilorin,

College of Education, Jalingo,

Kano State College of Education, Kumbotso,

College of Education, Benue,

Kebbi State College of Education, Argungu,

College of Education, Minna,

Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe,

College of Education, Oju,

College of Education, Oro,

College of Education, Oro,

Oyo State College of Education, Oyo,

College of Education, Warri,

College of Education, Warri,

FCT College of Education, Zuba,

Private college of education in Nigeria

Angel Crown College of Education, Gidan-Daya, .

Elder Oyama Memorial College of Education, Ofat-Adun,

Assanusiyah College of Education, Odeomu,

African Thinkers Community of inquiry College of Education,

Best Legacy College of Education, Ikirun,

Bauchi Institute for Arabic and Islamic Studies, .

Calvin Foundation College of Education, Naka,

Harvard Wilson College of Education, Aba,

Hill College of Education, Akwanga,

Institute of Ecumenical Education, Enugu,

College of Education, Foreign Links Campus Moro,

College of Education, Foreign Links Campus Moro,

Diamond College of education aba

Muhyideen College of Education, Ilorin,  

ONIT College of Education, Abagana, .

The African Church College of Education, Lagos,

St. Augustine College of Education, Yaba,

Yewa Central College of Education, Ogun,

List of Federal Universities in Nigeria

Abubakar Tafawa Belewa University,

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria,

Bayero University, Kano,

Federal University, Gashua,

Federal University of Tech, Akure,

Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun,

Federal University of Technology, Minna,

Federal University of technology, Owerri,

Federal University Dutse,

Federal University Dutsin-Ma,

Federal University, Ndufu-Alike,

Federal University, Otuoke,

Federal University, Wukari,

Federal University, Birnin Kebbi,

Federal University, Gusau

Michael Okpara Univeristy of Agric, Umudike, .

Modibbo Adama University of Tech, Yola, .

National Open University of Nigeria,

Nigeria Police Academy Wudil, .

Nigeria defense Academy, Kaduna, .

Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka,

Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, .

University of Abuja, Gwagwalada, .

University of Agriculture Abeokuta,

University of Agriculture Markurdi,

University of Benin,

University of Calabar,

University of Lagos,

University of Maiduguri,

University of Nigeria Nsukka,

University of Port-Harcourt

University of Uyo, .

Usmanu Danfodiyo University,

List of State Universities in Nigeria admission list

Abia State University, Uturu,

Adamawa State University, Mubi,

Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba,

Amrose Alli University, Ikot Akpaden,

Anambra State University of Sc. & Tech, Uli,

Anambra State University of Sc. & Tech, Uli,

Bauchi State Unibversity, Gadau,

Benue State University Markurdi,

Bukar Abba Ibrahim University, Damaturu,

Cross River State University of Sc. & Tech, Calabar, .

Delta State University Abraka,

Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki,

Ekiti State University,

Enugu State University of Sc. & Tech. Enugu,

Gombe State University, Gombe

Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University,

Ignatius Ajuru University of Education,

Imo state University,Owerri,

Jigawa State University,

Kaduna State University, Kaduna

Kano University of Sc. & Tech, Wudil

Kebbi State University, Kebbi,

Kogi State University, Anyigba,.

Kwara State University, Ilorin, .

Ladoke Akintola university of Tech,

Lagos State University Ojo,

Nasarawa State University, Keffi,

Niger Delta University, Yenagoe,

Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Iwoye,

Ondo State University of Sc. & Tech, Okitipupa,

Osun State University, Oshogbo,

Plateau State University, Bokkos,

Rivers State University of Sc. & Tech,

Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu-ode,

Taraba State University, Jalingo,

Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University,

Private Universities

Achievers University, Owo,

Adeleke University, Ede,

Afe Babalola University, Ado- Ekiti,

African University of Sc. & Tech, Abuja,

Al-hikmah University, Ilorin,

Ajayi Crowther University, Ibadan,

Al-Qalam University, Katsina,

American University of Nigeria, Yola, .

Babcock University, Ilishan,

Baze University,

Bells University of Technology, Otta,

Benson Idahosa University, Benin,

Bingham University, New Karu,

Bowen University, Iwo,

Caleb University, Lagos, .

Caritas University, Enugu,

CETEP City University, Lagos,

Covenant University, Ota,

Crawford University, Igbesa,

Crescent University,

Elizade University, Ilara-mokin, .

Fountain University, Oshogbo,

Gregory University, Uturu,

Hallmark University,

Igbinedion University, Okada

Joseph Ayo Babalola University,Ikeji,

Kwararafa University, Wukari,

Lead City University, Ibadan,

Madonna University, Okija

Mcpherson University, Seriki

Nigerian-Turkish Nile University, Abuja,

Novena University, Ogume,

Obong University, Obong Ntak, .

Oduduwa University, Ipetumodu,

Pan-African University, Lagos,

Paul University, Awka,

Redeemer’s University, Mowe,

Renaissance University, Enugu,

Salem University, Lokoja,]

Tansian University, Umunya, .

University of Mkar

Veritas University, .

Wellspring University, Edo, .

Wesley University of Sc. & Tech, Ondo,

Western Delta University, Oghara

List of all the Federal Polytechnics in Nigeria

    Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force,

    Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force,

    Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana,

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering,

     Auchi Polytechnic .

     Auchi Polytechnic .

    Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti

Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti .

Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, .

    Federal Polytechnic, Bida,

 Federal Polytechnic, Bida,

   Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu,

     Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State,

 Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State,

 Federal Polytechnic, Ida,

   Federal Polytechnic, Ida, .

  Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro,

     Federal Polytechnic, Ile-Oluji, Ondo State,

    Federal Polytechnic, Mubi,

   Federal Polytechnic, Namoda,

   Federal Polytechnic, Nassarawa,

  Federal Polytechnic, Nekede,

    Federal Polytechnic, Nekede,

Federal Polytechnic, Offa,

 Federal Polytechnic, Offa,

 Federal Polytechnic, Oko,

Federal School of Dental Technology and Therapy,

Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna,

Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic,

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering,

Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology

Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi,

Yaba College of Tech,

List of State Polytechnics in Nigeria

 Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic, Ijebu-Igbo,

Abia State Polytechnic, .

Adamawa State Polytechnic,

Akwa-Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot-Osurua,

Benue State Poly, Ugbokolo,

Gateway Polytechnic, Igbesa,

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic,

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic,

The Polytechnic, Ibadan, .

Institute of Mgt. and Tech,

Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo

Kano State Polytechnic,

Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja,

Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin,

Lagos State Poly, Ikorodu,

Moshood Abiola Poly,

Nasarawa State Polytechnic

Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic,

Delta State Polytechnic, Ogwashi-Uku,

Osun State Poly, Iree,

Osun State Poly, Iree,

Osun State College of Tech, Esa-Oke,

Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro,

Plateau State Polytechnic, Barkin-Ladi,

Adamawa State Poly,

Rivers State College of Arts and Science,

Rivers State College of Arts and Science

Rivers State Polytechnic,

Gateway Polytechnic Saapade

Edo State Inst. of Tech and Mgt, Usen,

Niger State Poly, Zungeru, Niger State,

List of Private Polytechnics in Nigeria

Allover Central Polytechnic,

Crown Polytechnics,

Covenant Polytechnic,

Dorben Polytechnic, Bwari-Garam Road,

Fidei Polytechnic, Gboko,

Grace Polytechnic,

Grace Polytechnic,

Igbajo Polytechnic,

The Polytechnic, Ile-Ife, NITEL Road

Lagos City Poly, Ikeja, Lagos State,

Light House Polytechnic, Eubuobanosa,

Interlink Polytechnic,

Kings Polytechnic, Ubiaja,

RONIK Polytechnic,

Shaka Polytechnic, Polytechnic, Benin city,

Temple-Gate Polytechnic,

Wolex Polytechnic

Prime Polytechnic

The Polytechnic Imesi-Ile, Osun

Heritage Polytechnic, Ikot Udota

Ibadan City Polytechnic