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  1. Introduction-         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         1
  2. Historical background of study-          –         –         –         –         –         1
  3. Statement of problems-    –         –         –         –         –         –         9
  4. Significance of Study-     –         –         –         –         –         –         10
  5. Objective of study-          –         –         –         –         –         –         10
  6. Hypothesis- –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         12
  7. Scope and Limitations of the study-     –         –         –         –         12
  8. Definition of terms-         –         –         –         –         –         –         13


CHAPTER TWO- Literature review

  1. Introduction-         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         15
  2. Theoretical Framework    –         –         –         –         –         –         17
  3. Historical Background of Privatization          –         –         –         34
  4. Policies of Privatization of Commercialization in Nigeria            44
  5. Reasons for Privatization and Commercialization –  –         –         56
  6. Problems of Privatization and Commercialization in Nigeria       58
  7. The Gains of Privatization and Commercialization in Nigeria      64
  8. Conclusion –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         67

CHAPTER THREE – Research Methodology

  1. Research Design –  –         –         –         –         –         –         –         68
  2. Research Population and sample Size –                    –         –         68
  3. Instrument for Data Collection   –         –         –         –         –         69
  4. Justification of method Used     –         –         –         –         –         70
  5. Method of Data Analysis           –         –         –         –         –         71
  6. Justification for the Instrument Used  –          –         –         –         73

CHAPTER FOUR – Presentation and Data Analysis

  1. Introduction-         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         73
  2. Data Presentation and Analysis  –        –         –         –         –         73
  3. Summary of the finding- –         –         –         –         –         –         82
  4. Test of hypothesis-          –         –         –         –         –         –         –         56


CHAPTER FIVE – Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  1. Summary –   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         86
  2. Conclusion- –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         87
  3. Recommendations–         –         –         –         –         –         –         88

Bibliography-        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         91

Appendix I

Appendix II






Privatization of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) has become a key component of the structural reform process and globalization strategy in many economies. Several developing and transition economies have embarked on extensive privatization and commercialization programmes in the last one and a half decades or so, as a means of fostering economic growth, attaining macroeconomic stability, and reducing public sector borrowing requirements arising from corruption, subsidies and subventions to unprofitable SOEs. By the end of 1996, all but five countries in Africa had divested some public enterprises within the framework of macroeconomic reform and liberalization (White and Bhatia, 1998).

In line with the trend worldwide, the spate of empirical works on privatization has also increased, albeit with a microeconomic orientation that emphasizes efficiency gains (La Porta and López-de-Silanes, 1997; D’Souza and Megginson, 1999; Boubakri and Cosset, 1998; Dewenter and Malatesta, 2001). Yet despite the upsurge in research, our empirical knowledge of the privatization programme in Africa is limited. Aside from theoretical predictions, not much is known about the process and outcome of privatization exercises in Africa in spite of the impressive level of activism in its implementation.

Current research is yet to provide useful insights into the peculiar circumstances of Africa, such as the presence of embryonic financial markets and weak regulatory institutions and the manner in which they influence the pace and outcome of privatization efforts. Most objective observers agree, however, that the high expectations of the 1980s about the “magical power” of privatization bailing Africa out of its quagmire remain unrealized (Adam et al., 1992; World Bank, 1995; Ariyo and Jerome, 1999; Jerome, 2005).

As in most developing countries, Nigeria until recently witnessed the growing involvement of the state in economic activities. The expansion of SOEs into diverse economic activities was viewed as an important strategy for fostering rapid economic growth and development. This view was reinforced by massive foreign exchange earnings from crude oil, which fuelled unbridled Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) investment in public enterprises. Unfortunately, most of the enterprises were poorly conceived and economically inefficient. They accumulated huge financial losses and absorbed a disproportionate share of domestic credit. By l985, they had become an unsustainable burden on the budget.

With the adoption of the structural adjustment programme (SAP) in 1986, privatization of public enterprises came to the forefront as a major component of Nigeria’s economic reform process at the behest of the World Bank and other international organizations



A major energy product which has emerged from the development of Nigeria’s energy resources is electricity. Although at independence in 1960 the country inherited a rudimentary electric power generation and distribution system under the Electricity Corporation of Nigeria (ECN) and later changed to NEPA.

Nigeria’s Electric Grid is being run on hydroelectric and thermal plants. The former are predominantly utilized in the northern part of Nigeria while the later which are fueled by petroleum appear to be largely favoured in the southern parts. The disadvantages of these approaches become evident in the harmattan seasons when the water level drops and in the chronic spate of fuel scarcity.

Nigeria has about 5,900MW of installed electric generating capacity consisting of 3 hydro-based stations and 5 thermal power plants. Nigeria faces a serious energy crisis due to declining electricity generation from the power plants. Power outages are frequent and the power sector




This article highlights various college of education, polytechnics, universities website in Nigeria.


Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo,

Alvan Ikoku College of Education, Owerri,

Alvan Ikoku College of Education, Owerri,

Federal College of Educ. Abeokuta,

Federal College of Education, Eha-Amufu,

Federal College of Education, Kano,

Federal College of Education, Katsina,

Federal college of Education, Kontagora,

Federal College of Education, Obudu,

Federal College of Education, Okene,

Federal College of Education, Okene,

Federal College of Education, Pankshin,

 Federal College of Education, Yola,

Federal College of Education, Zaria,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Akoka,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Bichi,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Gombe,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Gusau,

Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku,

Federal College of Education (Special) Oyo,

State college of education

College of Education, Agbor,

Akwa-Ibom State College of Education, Afaha-Nsit,

College of Education, Akwanga, ., form and admissions list

College of Education, Akwanga,

Cross River State College of Education, Akamkpa,

Adamu Augie College of Education, Argungu,

College of Education, Azare,

Bayelsa State College of Education, Okpoama,

Emmanuel Alyande College of Education, Oyo,

Enugu State College of Education (Tech.) Enugu,

College of Education, Ekiadolor,

Umar Suleiman College of Education, Gashua,

College of Education, Gindiri,

Michael Otedola College of Primary Education, Moforiji,

College of Education, Port Harcourt,

Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Otto,

Tai Solarin College of Education, Ijebu-Ode,

Tai Solarin College of Education, Ijebu-Ode,

Ebonyi State College of Education, Ikwo,

College of Education, Ikere,

College of Education, Ilesha, .

College of Education, Ilesha,

College of Education, Ilorin,

College of Education, Jalingo,

Kano State College of Education, Kumbotso,

College of Education, Benue,

Kebbi State College of Education, Argungu,

College of Education, Minna,

Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe,

College of Education, Oju,

College of Education, Oro,

College of Education, Oro,

Oyo State College of Education, Oyo,

College of Education, Warri,

College of Education, Warri,

FCT College of Education, Zuba,

Private college of education in Nigeria

Angel Crown College of Education, Gidan-Daya, .

Elder Oyama Memorial College of Education, Ofat-Adun,

Assanusiyah College of Education, Odeomu,

African Thinkers Community of inquiry College of Education,

Best Legacy College of Education, Ikirun,

Bauchi Institute for Arabic and Islamic Studies, .

Calvin Foundation College of Education, Naka,

Harvard Wilson College of Education, Aba,

Hill College of Education, Akwanga,

Institute of Ecumenical Education, Enugu,

College of Education, Foreign Links Campus Moro,

College of Education, Foreign Links Campus Moro,

Diamond College of education aba

Muhyideen College of Education, Ilorin,  

ONIT College of Education, Abagana, .

The African Church College of Education, Lagos,

St. Augustine College of Education, Yaba,

Yewa Central College of Education, Ogun,

List of Federal Universities in Nigeria

Abubakar Tafawa Belewa University,

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria,

Bayero University, Kano,

Federal University, Gashua,

Federal University of Tech, Akure,

Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun,

Federal University of Technology, Minna,

Federal University of technology, Owerri,

Federal University Dutse,

Federal University Dutsin-Ma,

Federal University, Ndufu-Alike,

Federal University, Otuoke,

Federal University, Wukari,

Federal University, Birnin Kebbi,

Federal University, Gusau

Michael Okpara Univeristy of Agric, Umudike, .

Modibbo Adama University of Tech, Yola, .

National Open University of Nigeria,

Nigeria Police Academy Wudil, .

Nigeria defense Academy, Kaduna, .

Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka,

Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, .

University of Abuja, Gwagwalada, .

University of Agriculture Abeokuta,

University of Agriculture Markurdi,

University of Benin,

University of Calabar,

University of Lagos,

University of Maiduguri,

University of Nigeria Nsukka,

University of Port-Harcourt

University of Uyo, .

Usmanu Danfodiyo University,

List of State Universities in Nigeria admission list

Abia State University, Uturu,

Adamawa State University, Mubi,

Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba,

Amrose Alli University, Ikot Akpaden,

Anambra State University of Sc. & Tech, Uli,

Anambra State University of Sc. & Tech, Uli,

Bauchi State Unibversity, Gadau,

Benue State University Markurdi,

Bukar Abba Ibrahim University, Damaturu,

Cross River State University of Sc. & Tech, Calabar, .

Delta State University Abraka,

Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki,

Ekiti State University,

Enugu State University of Sc. & Tech. Enugu,

Gombe State University, Gombe

Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University,

Ignatius Ajuru University of Education,

Imo state University,Owerri,

Jigawa State University,

Kaduna State University, Kaduna

Kano University of Sc. & Tech, Wudil

Kebbi State University, Kebbi,

Kogi State University, Anyigba,.

Kwara State University, Ilorin, .

Ladoke Akintola university of Tech,

Lagos State University Ojo,

Nasarawa State University, Keffi,

Niger Delta University, Yenagoe,

Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Iwoye,

Ondo State University of Sc. & Tech, Okitipupa,

Osun State University, Oshogbo,

Plateau State University, Bokkos,

Rivers State University of Sc. & Tech,

Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu-ode,

Taraba State University, Jalingo,

Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University,

Private Universities

Achievers University, Owo,

Adeleke University, Ede,

Afe Babalola University, Ado- Ekiti,

African University of Sc. & Tech, Abuja,

Al-hikmah University, Ilorin,

Ajayi Crowther University, Ibadan,

Al-Qalam University, Katsina,

American University of Nigeria, Yola, .

Babcock University, Ilishan,

Baze University,

Bells University of Technology, Otta,

Benson Idahosa University, Benin,

Bingham University, New Karu,

Bowen University, Iwo,

Caleb University, Lagos, .

Caritas University, Enugu,

CETEP City University, Lagos,

Covenant University, Ota,

Crawford University, Igbesa,

Crescent University,

Elizade University, Ilara-mokin, .

Fountain University, Oshogbo,

Gregory University, Uturu,

Hallmark University,

Igbinedion University, Okada

Joseph Ayo Babalola University,Ikeji,

Kwararafa University, Wukari,

Lead City University, Ibadan,

Madonna University, Okija

Mcpherson University, Seriki

Nigerian-Turkish Nile University, Abuja,

Novena University, Ogume,

Obong University, Obong Ntak, .

Oduduwa University, Ipetumodu,

Pan-African University, Lagos,

Paul University, Awka,

Redeemer’s University, Mowe,

Renaissance University, Enugu,

Salem University, Lokoja,]

Tansian University, Umunya, .

University of Mkar

Veritas University, .

Wellspring University, Edo, .

Wesley University of Sc. & Tech, Ondo,

Western Delta University, Oghara

List of all the Federal Polytechnics in Nigeria

    Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force,

    Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force,

    Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana,

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering,

     Auchi Polytechnic .

     Auchi Polytechnic .

    Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti

Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti .

Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, .

    Federal Polytechnic, Bida,

 Federal Polytechnic, Bida,

   Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu,

     Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State,

 Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State,

 Federal Polytechnic, Ida,

   Federal Polytechnic, Ida, .

  Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro,

     Federal Polytechnic, Ile-Oluji, Ondo State,

    Federal Polytechnic, Mubi,

   Federal Polytechnic, Namoda,

   Federal Polytechnic, Nassarawa,

  Federal Polytechnic, Nekede,

    Federal Polytechnic, Nekede,

Federal Polytechnic, Offa,

 Federal Polytechnic, Offa,

 Federal Polytechnic, Oko,

Federal School of Dental Technology and Therapy,

Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna,

Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic,

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering,

Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology

Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi,

Yaba College of Tech,

List of State Polytechnics in Nigeria

 Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic, Ijebu-Igbo,

Abia State Polytechnic, .

Adamawa State Polytechnic,

Akwa-Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot-Osurua,

Benue State Poly, Ugbokolo,

Gateway Polytechnic, Igbesa,

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic,

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic,

The Polytechnic, Ibadan, .

Institute of Mgt. and Tech,

Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo

Kano State Polytechnic,

Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja,

Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin,

Lagos State Poly, Ikorodu,

Moshood Abiola Poly,

Nasarawa State Polytechnic

Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic,

Delta State Polytechnic, Ogwashi-Uku,

Osun State Poly, Iree,

Osun State Poly, Iree,

Osun State College of Tech, Esa-Oke,

Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro,

Plateau State Polytechnic, Barkin-Ladi,

Adamawa State Poly,

Rivers State College of Arts and Science,

Rivers State College of Arts and Science

Rivers State Polytechnic,

Gateway Polytechnic Saapade

Edo State Inst. of Tech and Mgt, Usen,

Niger State Poly, Zungeru, Niger State,

List of Private Polytechnics in Nigeria

Allover Central Polytechnic,

Crown Polytechnics,

Covenant Polytechnic,

Dorben Polytechnic, Bwari-Garam Road,

Fidei Polytechnic, Gboko,

Grace Polytechnic,

Grace Polytechnic,

Igbajo Polytechnic,

The Polytechnic, Ile-Ife, NITEL Road

Lagos City Poly, Ikeja, Lagos State,

Light House Polytechnic, Eubuobanosa,

Interlink Polytechnic,

Kings Polytechnic, Ubiaja,

RONIK Polytechnic,

Shaka Polytechnic, Polytechnic, Benin city,

Temple-Gate Polytechnic,

Wolex Polytechnic

Prime Polytechnic

The Polytechnic Imesi-Ile, Osun

Heritage Polytechnic, Ikot Udota

Ibadan City Polytechnic