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Phyllanthus amarus has been consistently reported as a rich herb having medicinal value and ethnomedical importance. It has been used to eliminate gallstone, malaria and some other aliments, but the effect of its use on changes in ocular glucose, proteins and lipids — analytes that influence intraocular pressure, has not been fully documented. So, in this study, the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllanthus amarus on the levels of ocular glucose, proteins and lipids was investigated using homogenized ocular tissue of experimental mice.


Forty five (45) adult mice weighing between 22-27g were randomly divided into 9 groups  and used for the study. Group 1: normal control (uninfected and untreated mice) Group 2: malaria control (mice infected with plasmodium berghei and untreated) Group 3: parasitized (infected with P. Berghei treated with 100mg/kg P. amarus) Group 4: parasitized (infected with P. Berghei treated with 200mg/kg P. amarus) Group 5: parasitized (infected with P. Berghei treated with 300mg/kg P. amarus)



Group 6: parasitized (infected with P. Berghei treated with 5mg/kg chloroquine)

Group 7: uninfected but treated with 100mg/kg P .amarus Group 8: uninfected but treated with 200mg/kg P. amarus Group 9: uninfected but treated with 300mg/kg P. amarus .Each group was treated for 7days and on the 8th day the animals were scarificed under chloroform anaesthesia after an overnight fast. The mice eyes were carefully excised, rinsed in cold normal saline and prepared for the biochemical analysis of glucose, proteins and lipids using standard methods.


Results show that Phyllanthus amarus administration (irrespective of dose) did not significantly (p>0.05) alter ocular glucose and protein levels, but increased (p<0.05) lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) concentrations when compared with control values. The altered ocular lipid homeostasis may have some biochemical implications and clinical significance. This should be validated in further studies.



Table 1: glucose in the serum of p. berghei infected and uninfected mice treated with phyllanthus amarus leaf extract.    ———————————————————        25

Table 2: changes in blood cholesterol and triglyceride induced by plasmodium berghei infected mice    ——————————————————————————–       26

Table 3:  changes in blood albumin and total protein induced by p. berghei infected mice    —————————————————————————————————        27

Cover         ——————————————————————–      i

Title            ——————————————————————–    ii

Certification   —————————————————————-     iii

Dedication      ————————————————————–       iv

Acknowledgement   ——————————————————         v

Abstract         —————————————————————       vi

List of Tables   ————————————————————-     vii

Table of contents   ——————————————————-       viii


  • INTRODUCTION ———————————————————————–      1

1.1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY    ——————————————————-      1

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM    ——————————————————-        3

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY    ————————————————————-        4

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY    ——————————————————–        4

1.5 HYPOTHESIS    ————————————————————————–     5


1.7 BIOMAKERS   —————————————————————————-    5

1.8 RETINOPATHY    ————————————————————————   6

1.9 MUSCULAR ODEMA   —————————————————————–    6

1.10 WHAT IS MALARIA?    ———————————————————    7

1.11 CAUSES OF MALARIA       ———————————————————–     8

1.12 EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA         ———————————————-     8



1.15 LIFE CIRCLE OF PLASMODIUM PARASITE   ———————————–    12

CHAPTER TWO   ——————————————————————————    14

  1. 0MATERIALS AND METHOD ——————————————————– 14

2.1 MATERIALS    —————————————————————————–    14

2.2 METHODS    ——————————————————————————–   14

2.2.1 ANIMALS CARE AND HANDLING    ———————————————    14

2.2.2 ANIMAL GROUPING AND INOCULATION WITH PLASMODIUM BERGHEI    —————————————————————————————————–     15


2.2.4 ANALYSIS OF SPECIMEN   ———————————————————-   16


2.3 GLUCOSE ESTIMATION    ———————————————————–    16

2.3.1 REACTION PRINCIPLE    ———————————————————-     16

2.3.2 PROCEDURE    ———————————————————————–     17


2.4 TOTAL CHOLESTEROL ESTIMATION    ——————————————   17

2.4.1 PRINCIPLE    ————————————————————————–     17

2.4.2 EQUATION    ————————————————————————–    17

2.4.3 PROCEDURE    ————————————————————————    18

2.4.4 CALCULATION    ———————————————————————   19


2.5. TRIGLYCERIDE ESTIMATION    —————————————————    19

2.5.1 PRINCIPLE    ————————————————————————–     19

2.5.2 EQUATION    —————————————————————————   20

2.5.3 PROCEDURE    ———————————————————————–     20

2.5.4 CALCULATION    ——————————————————————–    21


2.6 TOTAL PROTEIN ———————————————————————-     21

2.6.1 PRINCIPLE    ————————————————————————–     21

2.6.2 PROCEDURE    ———————————————————————–     21

2.6.3 CALCULATION    ——————————————————————–     22


2.7 ALBUMIN ———————————————————————————–22

2.7.1 PRINCIPLE    ————————————————————————–      22

2.7.2 PROCEDURE    ———————————————————————–      23

2.7.3 CALCULATION    ——————————————————————–     23

2.7.4 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ————————————————————– 24

CHAPTER THREE    —————————————————————————   25

3.0 RESULTS    ———————————————————————————-   25

CHAPTER FOUR    —————————————————————————–   28

4.0 DICUSSION    ——————————————————————————    28

4.1 CONCLUSION    —————————————————————————– 29

REFERENCES   —————————————————————————30







Nature can be considered as the ultimate chemist, about 80% of the world inhabitants still depend on natural products that have inspired chemists and physicians for years because of their rich structural diversity and complexity considerable advances have been obtained for the understanding of natural product biosynthesis in the recent decades.


Malaria, a mosquito borne infectious disease is endemic in the tropical and sub tropical regions of the world (Ahimanah et al., 2000). It is a deadly disease which lowers life expectancy and a major cause of infant mortality in highly endemic areas (WHO, 2011).


Malaria infection in humans and animals is caused by the Plasmodium. Several species of Plasmodium have the ability to cause malaria in animals, including rodents (mice). These parasites are not direct practical concern to man or his domestic animals. The interest of these parasites is that they are practical model organism in the laboratory for the experimental study of human malaria.


Plasmodium berghei is considered a comparable genetic model to human There is a high degree of genetic conservation this up to 99% (pennachio, 2003) and it is well established that mice also exhibit natural differences in susceptibility to malaria infection (Greenberg et al., 1954). P. berghei is transmitted by Anopheles mosquito and it infects the liver after being injected into the blood stream by the bite of the infected female mosquito. After a few days of development and multiplication, these parasites leave the liver and invade erythrocyte (red blood cells). The multiplication causes Anemia and damage essential organs in the body. P. berghei infection also affects the brain and can cause cerebral complications in laboratory mice.


The plant, phyllanthus schumach (Euphorbiaceac) is commonly known as bhuirali Usually occurs in Asain, Maharashitra, Burma, Nicobar, Islands malesia and America. Phyllanthus amarus schumach is a native to Americans (van Holthoon, 1999). Phyllanthus amarus is small, erect, annual herb that grows 30-40cm in height which is indigenous to the rain forests of the Amazon and other tropical areas throughout the world including America, India and Nigeria. The Spanish name of the plant, chanca piedra, means stone breaker, wind breaker, gulf leaf flower or gala of wind (Celia, A.  et al., 2006).



Phyllanthus amarus is an Ayurvedic system of medicine which is used in the problems of stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney, and spleen, it plays an important role in Ayurvedia, an Indian system of medicine and it is used to treat jaundice, gastropathy, diarrhea, dysentery, fevers, scabies, gential, infections, ulcers, and wounds (Patel et al., 2011).


The different plant parts are ethnobotanically used in various diseases and disorders. For example, the leaves are used as expectorant and diaphoretic and the fruits as carminative, laxative, astringent. Diuretic and tonic to the liver. The juice or extract of its thinner roots and young leaves are taken internally to stimulate the kidney. Heyne recorded its uses in the Dutch  Indies (Indonesia) for stomach, aches, gonorrhoea and children cough (Karuna,  et al., 2009).


Research have shown that the plant has demonstrated anti-viral property against hepatitis B virus (Boeira  et al., 2 011), hepatoprotective (Amin,  et al., 2013), anticarcinogenic (Rajeshkumar,  et al., 2002), antimutagenics, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory (Obidike,  et al., 2010), anti-diabetics (Okoli, et al., 2011) and antilipidermic (Khanna,  et al.,  2002) activities.




Since malaria has been speculated to alter biochemical functions of organs of the body such as brain, liver, heart, and spleen, this research is designed to know if such biochemical alternations also include changes in the intraocular pressure markers in experimental mice. Phyllanthus amarus is a medicinal herb used for the treatment of several diseases including malarial infection. In southern Nigeria the utilization of Phyllanthus amarus is popular but whether it improves or disturbs





Below is the website of our various clients from various higher institutions of learning. These are universities, polytechnic and college of education website in Nigeria.

Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo,

Alvan Ikoku College of Education, Owerri,

Alvan Ikoku College of Education, Owerri, .

Federal College of Educ. Abeokuta, .

Federal College of Education, Eha-Amufu, .

Federal College of Education, Kano, .

Federal College of Education, Katsina, .

Federal college of Education, Kontagora, .

Federal College of Education, Obudu, .

Federal College of Education, Okene, .

Federal College of Education, Okene, .

Federal College of Education, Pankshin, .

 Federal College of Education, Yola, .

Federal College of Education, Zaria, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Akoka, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Bichi, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Gombe, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Gusau, .

Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku, .

Federal College of Education (Special) Oyo, .



State college of education

College of Education, Agbor, .

Akwa-Ibom State College of Education, Afaha-Nsit, .

College of Education, Akwanga, .

College of Education, Akwanga, .

Cross River State College of Education, Akamkpa, .

Adamu Augie College of Education, Argungu, .

College of Education, Azare, .

Bayelsa State College of Education, Okpoama, .

Emmanuel Alyande College of Education, Oyo, .

Enugu State College of Education (Tech.) Enugu, .

College of Education, Ekiadolor, .

Umar Suleiman College of Education, Gashua, .

College of Education, Gindiri, .

Michael Otedola College of Primary Education, Moforiji, .

College of Education, Port Harcourt, .

Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Otto, .

Tai Solarin College of Education, Ijebu-Ode, .

Tai Solarin College of Education, Ijebu-Ode, .

Ebonyi State College of Education, Ikwo, .

College of Education, Ikere, .

College of Education, Ilesha, .

College of Education, Ilesha, .

College of Education, Ilorin, .

College of Education, Jalingo, .

Kano State College of Education, Kumbotso, .

College of Education, Benue, .

Kebbi State College of Education, Argungu, .

College of Education, Minna, .

Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe, .

College of Education, Oju, .

College of Education, Oro, .

College of Education, Oro, .

Oyo State College of Education, Oyo, .

College of Education, Warri, .

College of Education, Warri, .

FCT College of Education, Zuba, .


Private college of education

Angel Crown College of Education, Gidan-Daya, .

Elder Oyama Memorial College of Education, Ofat-Adun, .

Assanusiyah College of Education, Odeomu, .

African Thinkers Community of inquiry College of Education, .

Best Legacy College of Education, Ikirun, .

Bauchi Institute for Arabic and Islamic Studies, .

Calvin Foundation College of Education, Naka, .

Harvard Wilson College of Education, Aba, .

Hill College of Education, Akwanga, .

Institute of Ecumenical Education, Enugu, .

College of Education, Foreign Links Campus Moro, .

College of Education, Foreign Links Campus Moro, .

Diamond College of education aba . past questions,jamb news, admission form and list

Muhyideen College of Education, Ilorin, .

ONIT College of Education, Abagana, .

The African Church College of Education, Lagos, .

St. Augustine College of Education, Yaba, .

Yewa Central College of Education, Ogun, .



List of Federal Universities in Nigeria

Abubakar Tafawa Belewa University, .

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, .

Bayero University, Kano, .

Federal University, Gashua, .

Federal University of Tech, Akure, .

Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, .

Federal University of Technology, Minna, .

Federal University of technology, Owerri, .

Federal University Dutse, .

Federal University Dutsin-Ma, .

Federal University, Ndufu-Alike, .

Federal University, Otuoke, .

Federal University, Wukari, .

Federal University, Birnin Kebbi, .

Federal University, Gusau

Michael Okpara Univeristy of Agric, Umudike, .

Modibbo Adama University of Tech, Yola, .

National Open University of Nigeria, .

Nigeria Police Academy Wudil, .

Nigeria defense Academy, Kaduna, .

Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, .

Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, .

University of Abuja, Gwagwalada, .

University of Agriculture Abeokuta, .

University of Agriculture Markurdi, .

University of Benin, .

University of Calabar, .

University of Lagos, .

University of Maiduguri, .

University of Nigeria Nsukka, .

University of Port-Harcourt, .

University of Uyo, .

Usmanu Danfodiyo University, .

List of State Universities

Abia State University, Uturu, .

Adamawa State University, Mubi, .

Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba, .

Amrose Alli University, Ikot Akpaden, .

Anambra State University of Sc. & Tech, Uli, .

Anambra State University of Sc. & Tech, Uli, .

Bauchi State Unibversity, Gadau, .

Benue State University Markurdi, .

Bukar Abba Ibrahim University, Damaturu, .

Cross River State University of Sc. & Tech, Calabar, .

Delta State University Abraka, .

Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, .

Ekiti State University, .

Enugu State University of Sc. & Tech. Enugu, .

Gombe State University, Gombe

Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, .

Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, .

Imo state University,Owerri, .

Jigawa State University, .

Kaduna State University, Kaduna .

Kano University of Sc. & Tech, Wudil

Kebbi State University, Kebbi, .

Kogi State University, Anyigba, .

Kwara State University, Ilorin, .

Ladoke Akintola university of Tech, .

Lagos State University Ojo, .

Nasarawa State University, Keffi, .

Niger Delta University, Yenagoe, .

Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Iwoye, .

Ondo State University of Sc. & Tech, Okitipupa, .

Osun State University, Oshogbo, .

Plateau State University, Bokkos, .

Rivers State University of Sc. & Tech, .

Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu-ode, .

Taraba State University, Jalingo, .

Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University, .

Private Universities

Achievers University, Owo, .

Adeleke University, Ede, .

Afe Babalola University, Ado- Ekiti, .

African University of Sc. & Tech, Abuja, .

Al-hikmah University, Ilorin, .

Ajayi Crowther University, Ibadan, .

Al-Qalam University, Katsina, .

American University of Nigeria, Yola, .

Babcock University, Ilishan, .

Baze University, .

Bells University of Technology, Otta, .

Benson Idahosa University, Benin, .

Bingham University, New Karu, .

Bowen University, Iwo, .

Caleb University, Lagos, .

Caritas University, Enugu, .

CETEP City University, Lagos, .

Covenant University, Ota, .

Crawford University, Igbesa, .

Crescent University, .

Elizade University, Ilara-mokin, .

Fountain University, Oshogbo, .

Gregory University, Uturu, .

Hallmark University, .

Igbinedion University, Okada

Joseph Ayo Babalola University,Ikeji, .

Kwararafa University, Wukari, .

Lead City University, Ibadan, .

Madonna University, Okija

Mcpherson University, Seriki

Nigerian-Turkish Nile University, Abuja, .

Novena University, Ogume, .

Obong University, Obong Ntak, .

Oduduwa University, Ipetumodu, .

Pan-African University, Lagos, .

Paul University, Awka, .

Redeemer’s University, Mowe, .

Renaissance University, Enugu, .

Salem University, Lokoja, .

Tansian University, Umunya, .

University of Mkar

Veritas University, .

Wellspring University, Edo, .

Wesley University of Sc. & Tech, Ondo, .

Western Delta University, Oghara

List of all the Federal Polytechnics

    Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force, .

    Air Force Institute of Technology Nigerian Air Force, .

    Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, .

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering, .

     Auchi Polytechnic .

     Auchi Polytechnic .

    Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti .

Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti .

Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, .

    Federal Polytechnic, Bida, .

 Federal Polytechnic, Bida, .

   Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, .

     Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State, .

         Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State, .

 Federal Polytechnic, Ida, .

   Federal Polytechnic, Ida, .

  Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, .

     Federal Polytechnic, Ile-Oluji, Ondo State, .

    Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, .

   Federal Polytechnic, Namoda, .

   Federal Polytechnic, Nassarawa, .

  Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, .

    Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, .

Federal Polytechnic, Offa, .

 Federal Polytechnic, Offa, .

 Federal Polytechnic, Oko, .

Federal School of Dental Technology and Therapy, .

Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, .

Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, .

Nigeria Army School of Military Engineering, .

Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology, .

Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi, .

Yaba College of Tech, .

List of State Polytechnics in Nigeria

 Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic, Ijebu-Igbo, .

Abia State Polytechnic, .

Adamawa State Polytechnic, .

Akwa-Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot-Osurua, .

Benue State Poly, Ugbokolo, .

Gateway Polytechnic, Igbesa, .

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, .

Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, .

The Polytechnic, Ibadan, .

Institute of Mgt. and Tech, .

Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo, .

Kano State Polytechnic, .

Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, .

Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, .

Lagos State Poly, Ikorodu, .

Moshood Abiola Poly, .

Nasarawa State Polytechnic, .

Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, .

Delta State Polytechnic, Ogwashi-Uku, .

Osun State Poly, Iree, .

Osun State Poly, Iree, .

Osun State College of Tech, Esa-Oke, .

Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro, .

Plateau State Polytechnic, Barkin-Ladi, .

Adamawa State Poly, .

Rivers State College of Arts and Science, .

Rivers State College of Arts and Science, .

Rivers State Polytechnic, .

Gateway Polytechnic Saapade, .

Edo State Inst. of Tech and Mgt, Usen, .

Niger State Poly, Zungeru, Niger State, .

List of Private Polytechnics in Nigeria

Allover Central Polytechnic, .

Crown Polytechnics, .

Covenant Polytechnic, .

Dorben Polytechnic, Bwari-Garam Road, .

Fidei Polytechnic, Gboko, .

Grace Polytechnic, .

Grace Polytechnic, .

Igbajo Polytechnic, .

The Polytechnic, Ile-Ife, NITEL Road, .

Lagos City Poly, Ikeja, Lagos State, .

Light House Polytechnic, Eubuobanosa, .

Interlink Polytechnic, .

Kings Polytechnic, Ubiaja, .

RONIK Polytechnic, .

Shaka Polytechnic, Polytechnic, Benin city, .

Temple-Gate Polytechnic, .

Wolex Polytechnic, .

Prime Polytechnic, .

The Polytechnic Imesi-Ile, Osun, .

Heritage Polytechnic, Ikot Udota, .

Ibadan City Polytechnic, .